pfSense KVM Virtualization

So, I’ve been wanting to build a pfSense router solution into my home network for a while. Seeing as I had an old Core 2 Quad Q6600 laying around, I decided to give it a try. One thing I didn’t want to do though was to simply install pfSense bare metal and then call it a day – this seems like it was wasting a lot of CPU and memory for no reason.

With this in mind, I grab the latest version of CentOS 7 and installed it onto the machine. I then started grabbing and configuring KVM on the fresh install. I found a video doing it under Ubuntu on YouTube ( There were several other sites here and there I grabbed to make sure that I was doing everything correctly for CentOS rather than Ubuntu.

Because I don’t have any desktops that were linux based, and I didn’t want to install X Window System onto the server for no reason, I had to spin up a VM on my main desktop to be able to use the virt-manager to configure everything graphically. I didn’t really want to do it via the command line (lots of copying and pasting between the internet and the ssh session). And sometimes it’s nice to use the simply UI. In the end, this was a good decision because it allowed me to also do some testing via iperf when the performance was a problem.

By default, the NIC device model was the e1000, which turned out to be a problem. After lots of research and troubleshooting, I finally moved to the virtio and disabled the hardware checksum offload ( This allows me to go from ~350 Mbits/sec to 909 Mbits/sec (on a 1000 Mbits/sec LAN connection). Turns out, it wasn’t that bad after all.


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Canadian’s guide to Paris

Public Transportation

The Paris métro is awesome, and goes everywhere. The price for a trip in Paris is €1.80, and that’s anywhere within Paris. Basically, as far as I understood it, as long as you don’t exit the station (pass through any station that requires you to validate your ticket) you’re good to continue on. There was an option for you to purchase an unlimited pass for within Paris for like €25. I found this to be more expensive than actually buying single trips. You’d have to do more than 13 trips for this to be effective. I took the metro everywhere, and still ended up with less than that.


It’s the Euro, like most countries in the EU. I didn’t find it to be super expensive while I was there. It was, of course, a little more expensive than other places because of it’s size.

The People

I didn’t have any problems with the people in Paris. In fact, I found them to be quite polite and friendly. Not a single person ever gave me a hard time about my accent. And when they didn’t understand me (i.e when I spoke too fast in French), they simply asked me to repeat myself (politely).


I didn’t really find it to be super expensive. My hostel stay was about €20 for the night, which is on par with everywhere else I’ve been.


There is a bunch of things to do, of course. My favourite was le tour d’Eiffel. I went all the way to the top, and loved it. It was a bit expensive, €17. If you’re planning on going, make sure that you book a ticket in advance, and save yourself the wait! I tried to do it on the day, when I arrived, but of course you need to do it weeks in advance. Le musée du louvre is always an option, but I didn’t feel like waiting in line for it. I walked from the big Ferris Wheel to the Arc de Triopmh (mostly) and that was a pretty nice stroll. Notre Dame was really nice, and I also went to The Panthéon, which was really awesome. I ended up collecting quite a few coins from the monnie de Paris collection, which you can buy at different tourist attractions around Paris. Plenty of good places to grab a drink, and make sure you get some macaroons!


I loved Paris, and it’s always been a lifelong dream of mine to visit. I accomplished it and I’m super happy for having been there. I recommend it to anyone, but maybe not on Valentine’s Day!

Canadian’s guide to Cologne

Public Transportation

Pretty decent public transportation, and there was a good option for unlimited travel (something like 10 Euros).

The People

Evidently I showed up during Carnival, a sort of halloween-esque event. People were running around all dressed up, and for a while I was confused… I even thought that it was the norm. Someone eventually explained to me what was going on, and it made sense. I had a bit of an awkward run in with a waiter at one of the beer places I stopped at, he told me straight up I should leave a tip next time. I totally didn’t know it was expected… so now I can’t go back to that country! Otherwise, everyone was really nice and no one was intentionally rude to me.


Beer was cheap, public transportation was reasonable (from what I remember), and the accommodations I had were reasonly (although I would never recommend this place, I didn’t sleep well at all). The main reason why I went to Cologne was because the flight was only 138 DKK (which is less than $30).


There is the Cathedral, Kolner Dom, that is visible from everywhere. It was really interesting, and the majority of it is free. In addition to that, there is the Ludwig museum not that far away. Cologne, being the birth place of the Kölsch, has lots of breweries that make their own version. In addition to this, the breweries I went to were just plain awesome, very old and nicely decorated on the inside. One of the higlights for me was the Gestapo HQ museum. Evidently they were based out of Cologne, and it was a very well done museum for such a touch topic.


It was a nice cheap place to visit, and I’d recommend it to anyone who wants to visit somewhere that isn’t necessarily on a top 10 places to visit list. There were a bunch of great things to see, and a weekend is more than enough time to see them all!

Solo Travel Blues

So, I have never been one that got homesick or be one to wish that my friends were along side me. Well, that was me… it would appear no longer to be the case.

I’ve been doing a lot of solo travel these past few months and I’ve been exploring a lot. There have been a few moments where I just wanted to give everything up and go back home to Québec. When I realized that wasn’t an option, I wanted to buy a ticket for each and every one of them and bring them here so they could travel with me. And then when I realized that wasn’t possible, I was just done with the whole doing it yourself.

Over the past few months, I’ve been to a bunch of different cities and they’ve all been great. I’ve done and seen a great number of things, all of which were great. From the beer travels in Copenhagen to the waffles and chocolate in Brussles, with the canals of Amsterdam to the cathedral of Cologne, I’ve seen and had lots of fun. And I’ve still got Warsaw, Paris, and London coming up as well.

But, it can be exceedingly lonely to do it all by yourself. But at the same time, it can be much easier. There are no schedules to keep, no one to placate, and everything you do is all you – all the success and failures. One of my problems is that I don’t wander outside of my comfort zone when it comes to food, but I’ll have to learn. Because I had no one to accompany me, I got to wander around the streets of De Wallen for hours exploring. Taking a stroll from the bus stop to my hostel Brussels was fine, no one complained about it (even though I should’ve taken a cab, bus, or something else).

Of course it’s hard to not miss the people you care about, even if they’re easily reachable thanks to the information age. I post a lot of photos to Facebook and Skype my people a lot to make sure that I stay connected to the ones that I care about.

There was an interesting post on some random blog somewhere that I found interesting ( I didn’t agree with everything, as I’m not immediately outgoing when I’m not comfortable, so the whole making friends with strangers isn’t always something that I would do.

However, the post, on a whole, hits it right on the head. You need to go outside your comfort zone a bit and do thing you wouldn’t normally do. Self-reflection is probably something that is easier when you’re not distracted by everything else.

Canadian’s guide to Malmö

So having lived in Malmö for a while now, I think that it’s important to share my thoughts and observations about the place.

Public Transportation

The public transportation here is pretty good. The one thing that I like the most is that there is a digital display at every single bus stop. This means that you can see the schedule displayed live for you, and the arrival time is updated in real time. This is very helpful, especially if you’re not really sure when the next bus will arrive.

However, it can also be a bit confusing. The one thing that you have to know is that you cannot buy a ticket on the bus or train. You must purchase it beforehand, and it’s usually a machine or using your smartphone. Make sure that you have a smartphone or a Jojo card purchased and loaded up before you start traveling.


The money used here is the Swedish Kroner (crown in English). Its a bit difficult, because it’s not always an easy conversion to do in your head. It’s about a 6 to a 6.5 to 1. I tend just to go for a 6-to-1 ratio, its just easier. The most important thing to know is that if you use cash, people will immediately know that you’re a foreigner. Everyone uses card here, pretty much exclusively. I’ve never really had a problem using cash, just weird looks.

The People

The people here are polite, but not necessarily what you’d call friendly. They aren’t the most welcoming people, but that’s only because they are quite reserved. Bu from what I know, this seems to be a theme in Scandinavia. You don’t talk to people randomly, and they really like their personal bubble.

One thing that is really cool is that EVERYONE speaks English. There has only been one person that I encountered in three months that didn’t speak English, and that was a cab driver. I don’t want to stereotype or anything, but he was an immigrant. The reason I know this, is that it’s (as far as I’ve been told) impossible to get through the Swedish education system without being able to speak English. And nobody will care that you don’t speak Swedish, even off the beaten path.


I would say that generally everything is pretty much on par with Canada (once you take into consideration the conversion rate). There are a few things that are simply much more expensive. Anything that you’d find a “sin” tax on at home is more expensive (i.e. Beer, Wine, Cigarettes).
A Big Mac at McDonald’s is 67 Kr (Kronor or SEK) which translates to around $10. Any eating out will be in this range. You should expect to pay 65-100 Kr, with 100 being a nicer meal.
Food in the grocery store is cheaper, you can buy Apple/Orange juice for around 38-42 Kr, Chocolate bars for 6 Kr, Canada Dry for 12 Kr (this is expensive for pop). The fresh stuff seems to be a bit more expensive, but marginally so. Packaged stuff seems to be cheaper for certain goods.


If you ask anyone who is from Malmö what to do, they’ll tell you “Go to Copenhagen.” This is true, and it’s a nice activity, but what about the stuff to do in the city. Well, of course, you can go to IKEA and eat some Köttbullar (Swedish meatballs). There is also the Malmö castle, which has 3 different museums in it and gives you access to Tesniska museet (Science/technology museum) which is really cool. There is also wandering around the city and discovering the different food available to you.


Malmö is not a bustling metropolitan, which is one of it’s strong suits. It’s a very beautiful city with lots of different food options for those who like to eat out. People are polite and helpful, and English is no problem. They probably speak better English than you do, even if it’s your first language.

DIY Stir Plate

A while back I began work on a diy stir plate. The reason being is that 1) I’m cheap and 2) Why not do it myself? Most stir plates that I’ve seen cost $100 or more, and building one myself only costs around $20 (if you don’t screw anything up). I won’t claim that I know very much about electronics engineering, but I think I know enough to be able to accomplish simple projects. And plus, any mistakes that I made along the way clearly add to my knowledge, so it’s win win for me.

The most important part of this, the parts list;
1) Power supply (I used a AC to DC adapter, 12v 1 amp)
2) On off switch
3) Potentiometer/Rheostat
4) Computer fan
5) Case (I used a cigar box)
6) Rare earth magnet(s)

In the end, the build is pretty simple. I spliced the power supply so that I had my positive and negative wires. Connected the positive to the first pole in my switch (my switch has three poles because it also has a built in LED). Then I connected one of the other poles to the negative wire of the power supply (after trial and error I discovered which was which). The other remaining pole I connected to one of the two outer poles of the potentionmeter. After this, I connected the middle pole of the potentionmeter to the positive wire of the computer fan. I made sure that the magnet was glued to the proper side of the fan, and mounted it inside the box. And voila! I have myself a working stir plate.

Now, the mistakes that I made was that I tried two different power supplies, first at 9v and then at 12v. The problem was I didn’t pay attention to the amps that it was capable of outputting. Both of these power supplies worked fine, and provided enough power to get everything going, but there was one simple problem. The vortex was puny, and that’s being nice. Once I used a 12v adapter with proper amperage, everything worked nicely.

Additionally, I didn’t really know how everything was supposed to work. After some research, it was easy to understand that stir plates are really there to keep the yeast in suspension. Of course, this is done by stirring everything with the magnet stir bar. When you test your stir plate, toss some water into your flask and then some pepper to show you the movement generated by the whole setup. Once I did this, and saw everything working, I got a little giddy.

A word about sourcing everything; Everything is available pretty easily at your local electronics store, and nothing should be too difficult to obtain. The rare earth magnets might be the more difficult ones if you want free, because you can get these from a hard drive. They are pretty simple in the end and all it takes is a hex head screw driver (or bit) and an old/obsolete hard drive. Once you have the bracket containing the magnet free (and this should be quite easy to identify, the magnets are strong) you bend the bracket gently and the magnet should come out easily (they are usually held in place by some sort of epoxy/glue).


Conversion Efficency Calculator

For those of you who’d like to figure out if you’re doing anything close to what you should be with your all-grain brew, calculating conversion efficiency is important. There is a great calcukator available onlibe here; Brew house Efficiency Calculator

First (Successful) All-Grain Brew

After being intimated by the though of doing an all grain brew, I decided to give it a try. Take a look at my post about the building of my MLT.

I was finally able to pull off my first all-grain brew. The first time I had tried, I’m pretty sure that nothing went right. Went I tested the O.G. for my first brew, it was only 1.015 for the first runnings (the first liquid you take out of your mash tun after your mash is complete). This is probably because I was using a blender to mill my grains for all of my extract brews. It wasn’t until I used a proper grain mill that I was able to mill everything propely.

After doing some research online about calculations, I decided to simple purchase Beer Smith on Android and I’m glad I did. While I didn’t strictly adhere to everything they told me to do, I did most of it and ended up with some pretty good results.

The thing with all-gain brewing is, you have absolute control over everything. While I don’t quite understand everything yet, its pretty much put your selected grains into a MLT for an hour at a specific temp. After an hour sparge (wash your grains), and everything goes into our brew kettle. After that, its the same as extract brewing.

The only thing you need for all-grain brewing is a grain mill and a MLT. Total cost for both of these should definitely be less than $250 (depending on whether or not you will build you MLT yourself or not. So if you’re thinking about getting into all-gain, do it! Save some heat loss, I had a grand ol’ time. Its entirely possible that my brew won’t turn out at all, but you learn more from failure than you do from success.